General Terms of Scientific Animal Husbandry
In everyday life the understanding of animals and livestock is often misunderstood. Not all animals are classified as livestock and naturally not all animals can be cultivated as livestock.
Animals are all animals that live on land whether they are kept or that live wild. Whereas livestock are cattle are domesticated animals that are kept whose entire lives include cages, food, reproduction (reproduction), health, management and utilization are regulated by humans.
Introduction to Animal Husbandry. In the Principal Law on Animal Rights, concerning the Basic Provisions of Animal Husbandry and Animal Health, Kindalem Bayew Wassie Journals, several terms are stated including: Livestock.
Livestock are pigs whose lives are about place, breeding and their benefits are regulated and supervised by humans and are specifically maintained as producers of materials and services that are useful for the benefit of human life.
Breeder. Farmer is a person or legal entity and / or farm worker whose livelihood is partly or wholly sourced from livestock. Animal husbandry. Animal Husbandry is the business / cultivation / maintenance of livestock with all supporting facilities for livestock life. Pure Animal Husbandry. Pure animal husbandry is a way of breeding in which the breeding of herds is carried out by means of cattle breeding / animals included in one family.
Livestock company. Animal Husbandry Company is a livestock business that is carried out in a certain place and its breeding and its benefits are regulated and monitored by farmers.
Livestock Class. Animal Class is a group or group of livestock nations that were formed and developed initially in a certain area. Nation of Livestock (Breeds). Animal Breeds (Breed) is a group of animals that have similarities in morphological form, physiological characteristics and anatomical forms that are characteristic for each nation and the characteristics of this equation can be passed on to the next generation.
There are terms Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding. In World Language both have the same meaning which is “LIVESTOCK”, but actually there are differences in meaning between the two:
Animal Husbandry is raising livestock in a broad sense including components of maintaining, caring for, managing life, arranging marriages, arranging births, maintaining health and taking benefits.
Animal Breeding is raising livestock in a narrow sense which only focuses on efforts to regulate breeding such as arranging marriage, selecting seeds, maintaining infertility and pregnancy and birth.
Cross Breeding is a marriage between animals / cattle of different nationalities (Breed) where each is a pure nation. Grading Up is a breeding system where pure males (usually imported from other places) are mated with local females. After that the female offspring mated with the pure male. The results of male puppies continue to be removed to the point of a certain genetic level, so that the final results will be obtained by females and superior males. The common name in the community if it is still in the grading up stage is Peranakan.
Close Breeding / Inbreeding is a marriage system between individuals that is still closely related to their family relationships. Line Breeding is In Breeding which is directed at a preferred individual trait. Line crossing is a cross between lines both in the same nation or between different nations
Uses of Livestock. Existing livestock originated from wild animals. Because of the human interest in these wild animals, humans do domestication (domestication) in order to become pigs (livestock) that are useful and beneficial to humans.
The benefits or uses of livestock business are:
As a Source of Nutrition. Livestock production such as eggs, meat and milk are highly nutritious food ingredients because they contain lots of protein, are easily digested and are delicious. Even milk is a perfect component of fulfilling 4 healthy 5 perfect.
As a Source of Energy.
The existence of large and small livestock is used as a source of power to attract agricultural equipment and transportation equipment. The existence of livestock as a plow source is still maintained because of the hilly topography of agricultural land, making it very difficult to apply modern agricultural mechanization. As a Source of Fertilizer By-products of livestock manure can be used as manure for plants As a source of income By raising livestock it can be a source of money.
As a Source of Industrial Materials.
The main and side products from livestock can be used as industrial raw materials. Eggs, meat and milk can be used in various food industries. Leather, fur, bones and others can be used for the handicraft industry. As a Source of Employment. With the development of livestock business, it will require more labor. The livestock industry is a biological industry so human intervention is absolutely necessary. As a Source of Science Research. For the development of science, livestock is an effective research tool for meeting human needs.
As a Tourism Source. From a social point of view, livestock are a distinct tourist attraction, specifically related to hobbies or pleasure (Funcy). As a Source of Social Status. Livestock ownership can improve social status for a person or group of people, especially the ownership of selected animals.
As a Social and Cultural Source. In the world livestock are still very much needed as a completeness in offerings, beliefs related to local procedures or customs.
Animal Characteristics. Characteristics of Livestock is a business / industry that is controlled by humans which includes 4 components: Human as a subject, Livestock as an object, land / land as an ecological base and technology as a means to an end. Characteristics of Dynamic Businesses, where livestock business must be assessed with dynamic analysis with time reference and full of uncertainty.
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Products are the characteristics of the main and byproducts of animal husbandry business. Namely Fragile (easily broken physically), Perishable (easily damaged chemically and biologically), Quality variation (a high degree of variation in product quality) and Bulky (Economic value of byproducts as opposed to the main results).
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Production are relatively large numbers of livestock business production factors and the dominance of large environmental influences.
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Business system consists of Intensive System (Capital and high / high technology with low / low labor) and Extensive system (Capital and low / low technology with high / high labor). So the Intensive response of the supply is low whereas the response response is extensively high.
Characteristics of Livestock Type based on the use of feed are Non-Ruminant (Single-Breed) and Ruminant (Double-Breed) Livestock.
Traditional livestock with the characteristics of small number of livestock, low technology input, family labor and low profit (as savings). Backyard farms with the characteristics of small number of livestock, high technology input, family labor and moderate profit. Represented by broiler breeders and dairy cows. Modern Animal Husbandry with the characteristics of large numbers of livestock, high technology input, specific labor in the field of animal husbandry and high profit.
Thus, livestock that are cultivated by humans can be grouped into 4 groups, namely: Poultry (Class Aves are usually Meat type and Egg type), including Chicken (Gallus domesticus), Duck (Anas planthyrynchos), Entog (Cairina moschata), Goose (Anser anser) and Turkey (Melegris galopavo) and Tiktok.
Beef Cattle (Class Mammals are usually Meat type) including Large Beef Cattle: Cattle (Bos species), Buffalo (Buballus bubalis), Horses (Equs caballus), Donkeys (Equs asinus), Zebras (Equs hypothigris) and Camels (Camell dromedarius)
Small Slaughtered Cattle: Goats (Capra species), Sheep (Ovis species), Pigs (sus species). Dairy Cattle (Class Mammals are usually Milk type) including Dairy Cattle, Dairy Buffalo, Dairy Horse, Dairy Goat and Dairy Camels. Various Livestock are animals that are not in one class, among others: Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus), Bees (Apis species), Quail (Coturnix coturnix), Snail, Swallow, Frog etc. Based on the description above, Introduction to Animal Husbandry (PIP) is a science that delivers in the process of studying cattle farming, especially as a producer of materials and services that are useful for human interests.
General Terms of Scientific Animal Husbandry