Definition of Hermeneutics

Definition of Hermeneutics
When we return to the characteristics of modernism above, we can know that the limits of understanding about postmodernism are marked by resistance or doubt about the flow of rationalism, which is influenced by the development of science and technology, and believes in pragmatic meaning. In connection with this, the way to get knowledge or look for truth in the tradition of postmodernism is one of them, namely Hermeneutic Mode of Engagements (Alwasilah, on Jastickle Papers).
For literary studies related to postmodernism there are at least two approaches that can be used to approach or analyze literary works, namely deconstruction and hermeneutics.
As a form of restriction to be simpler, the presentation of this paper will only focus on the hermeneutics study.
The word hermeneutics comes from the Greek hermeneuein which means to make sense. Hermeneutics initially appeared in religious studies to interpret scripture verses. Other experts say that the term Hermeneutics which is in English hermeneutics, comes from the Greek words hermeneuine and hermenia, which respectively means to interpret and interpret (Raharjo, 2008: 27).
The hermeneutics experts are Gadamer and Heidegger.
Gadamer is of the view that something can be understood from language. This is in line with the expression zoon logon echon which means humans as creatures speak. Furthermore, the hermeneutics emphasizes understanding. The intended understanding is the interpretation of the text. The text needs to be interpreted because there are differences in space and time.
The ultimate goal of hermeneutics is a better understanding or understanding (sense making) of the interaction of various constructs that already exist, then analyzed to make it easier for others to understand (Alwasilah, 2010).
A general description of the term hermeneutics is also expressed by Zygmunt Bauman, namely as an effort to explain and trace the message and basic understanding of a written utterance that is unclear, blurry, dim, and contradictory, which causes confusion for listeners and readers (Faiz, 2003: 22).
With regard to literature, hermeneutics is used as a tool for interpreting literary texts. Interpreters of literary texts should not be closed in dealing with a text. The interpreter should open himself up to seeing other texts which are very likely to have influenced or influenced the text being studied. Faiz (2003: 23) calls it a consideration of the horizons surrounding the text, namely the text horizon, the author horizon, and the reader horizon.
If the origin of the word hermeneutics is demanded, then the word is a derivation of the word Hermes, a god in Greek mythology who is in charge of conveying and explaining messages from the god to humans. According to another version it is said that Hermes was a messenger who had the task of delivering Jupiter’s message to humans. The main task of Hermes, who is described as having winged legs and better known as Mercurius, is to translate messages from Mount Olympus into the language used by his listeners. Since that time Hermes became a symbol of an ambassador who was burdened with certain missions (Sumaryono, 1999: 24).
Departing from the Greek myth, the term henneneutik is interpreted as the process of changing something or a situation of ignorance into understanding, especially this process involves language because language is the most perfect mediation in the process (Palmer, 2003: 15).
According to Palmer (2003: 15-36) mediation and the process of bringing the message to be understood which is associated with the God of Hennes are contained in three basic forms of meaning from herme neuein and herme neia. The three forms use the verb from herme neuein, as follows.
First, herme neuein as to express, to assert, or to say, this is related to the notification function of Hennes.
Second, herme neuein as to explain, the interpretation as an explanation emphasizes the aspect of discursive understanding. Interpretation focuses more on explanation than the dimensions of expressive interpretation. The most essential thing about words is not to say something, explain something, rationalize it, make it clear. Someone can express a situation without explaining it, and expressing it is an interpretation, and explaining it is also a form of interpretation.
Third, herme neuein as translate. In this dimension to interpret means to translate which is a special form of the basic interpretative process of bringing something to be understood. In this context, one brings what is foreign, distant and incomprehensible to the mediation of one’s own language, such as God Hermes, the translator becomes the media between one world and another world Palmer (2003: 15-36).

Development of Language Change

Development of Language Change
Language always develops along with changes in the supporting community. Developments that occur in various sectors in the current era of globalization have an impact on the view of using language in a straightforward manner more appropriate to use. Basically, language changes that occur are the nature of language, namely language is dynamic.
The dynamism of the language makes it constantly changing and developing according to the times. It is undeniable that rapid language development can lead to variations in speech in a language. The use of a language is not monolithic, but varies. The variety of languages is divided into two types, namely internal and external variations (Nababan, on OhMy-Cerita).
In a diachronic study it is possible to change meaning.
Changes in meaning in the diachronic dimension can be ameliorative (meaning which is now considered better than the previous meaning) and pejorative (meaning which is now worse than the previous meaning). Subroto (2011: 88-93) states that a language in its journey from time to time must undergo changes in both the form and meaning in terms of its vocabulary system.
Language variations can be caused by demographic and historical factors. Omar (in Nadra, 2007: 210) states that demographically changes occur more quickly in areas with more densely populated areas compared to areas with lesser populations. A denser population is usually a cultural center or trade center. Historical events can also cause language variations that cause differences in dialects such as: migration, transmigration, and communication between speakers of different dialects.
Some of the sound innovations are organized and some are sporadic.
Regular sound changes are called correspondence, while irregular sound changes are called variations (Mahsun, 1995: 28). There are 10 types of sound change (see Kisyani Laksono and Agusniar Dian Savitri, 2009: 97-99; Mahsun, 1995: 33-39; Crowley, 1992: 38-39) states that there are 10 types of sound change, namely: (i) assimilation, (ii) assimilation, (iii) metathesis, (iv) contraction, (v) sound absorption, (vi) addition of binyi, (vii) lenisi, (viii) sandhi, (ix) dissonance, and (x) ) palatalization.
Language variations are often found in someone’s speech if listened carefully. One can systematically do lexical variations both in the form of pronunciation with variations in one or more phonemes, the use of different vocabulary words, and also variations in their structure (Spolsky, 2003: 27). Language variation is a form of language that is not uniform because speakers are not homogeneous. Language variation is seen because of the social diversity of language speakers and the diversity of language functions.
Some experts classify language variations differently. Chaer (2007) classifies language variations based on speakers and their use. Based on the speaker, language variation is seen from who uses it, how its social position is in society, gender and when the language is used. Meanwhile, based on its use, what language is used, in what field, the formality situation. The following is a description of language variations according to Chaer (2007).
Internal variations are variations that are influenced by these language factors which are manifested at phonological, morphological, and lexical levels. While external variations are distinguished based on two things, namely the users and their use. Based on the user, the language is divided into two, namely idiolects which are variations of the language that each individual has, and dialects which are variations at the level of the community groups that occupy a certain area.
The use of a language is not monolithic, but varies. The variety of languages is divided into two types, namely internal and external variations (Nababan, 1986: 16). Internal variations are variations that are influenced by these language factors which are manifested at phonological, morphological, and lexical levels. While external variations according to Hallyday (1965: 6) are distinguished based on two things, namely users and their use. Based on the user, the language is divided into two, namely idiolects which are variations of the language that each individual has, and dialects which are variations at the level of the community groups that occupy a certain area.

Look at dialectology as a study of regional variations in language

Look at dialectology as a study of regional variations in language
Furthermore Poedjosoedarmo et al (1979: 8-9) states that the level of speech is a code of delivery system of politeness in which there are certain vocabulary elements, certain syntactic rules, certain morphological rules and certain phonological rules. The most important factor as a determinant of speech level is O1’s perception of O2’s position, such as: kinship, rank, descent, economic level, and so on. Broadly speaking, the division of speech levels , intermediate, and ngoko (Poedjosoedarmo, 1979: 13).
Chambers and Trudgill (1980: 206) argue that in subsequent developments, dialectological terminology has narrowed understanding, namely as a study of dialect geography. This fact is also recognized by Petyt (on Lab Ruangguru).
This can be observed in some linguistic opinions, for example O’grady et al. (1997: 712) which states that dialectology is the study of language variations related to the geographical distribution of speakers.
Richards et al. (1987: 80) views dialectology as a study of regional variations in language. Likewise Crystal (1989: 26) views dialectology as a systematic study of regional dialects. Therefore, side by side, in addition to dialectology another term is used, namely dialectical geography or linguistic geography and scholars who study this field are called dialect geographers or language geographers or dialectologists (Shuy, 1967: 3). According to Pei (1966: 68), dialect geography, area linguistics (l), and linguistic geography are synonymous terms, namely the study of differences in local languages with specific speech areas.
Linguists or those who are interested in dialectology have certain motivations when examining their objects. According to Francis (1983: 7), those who study dialectology (dialect study) have at least four motivational traits, namely (1) curious, (2) anthropological, (3) linguistic, and (4) practical. The first motivation appears when a person often wants to know the difference in words for something he knows or the difference in meaning for words he knows. Likewise, curiosity about the pronounced differences in pronunciation.
The second motivation is related to the view of language as an important part of culture. Language differences and variations are often the deepest clues to social and cultural phenomena.
The third motivation relates to the data obtained by dialectologists, through which this data can be known by the history of language. The fourth motivation is related to language changes and their use. With this data, the problem of using language variations, including standard dialects, in society can be practically known.
Dialectology as a branch of linguistics has a role in developing this knowledge. In this case, the study can display the symptoms of language variations, that is variations that occur in certain areas or that are used by certain social groups.
According to Grijns (1991: 54), one of the dialectological services that has been evident is that from an early age and very generally succeeded in showing the complexity of the distribution of areas of linguistic features in human languages.
According to Robins (1992: 74), because it is often related to the history of language development, dialect studies are very relevant to historical linguistics. In this regard, dialect study can be considered an auxiliary science of historical linguistics. Nothofer (Collins, 1989: xx) holds that dialect research has two goals, namely synchronous goals and diachronic goals. Clearly, dialect studies have a broad scope of scope so that they make a major contribution to general linguistic studies.
In accordance with the development of the object and method of study, Chambers and Trudgill (1980: 206) consider in today’s dialectology (modern dialectology) not only discussed the problem of dialect geography, but also discussed issues of urban dialect and population geography.
Therefore, Chambers and Trudgill proposed the term geolinguistics for the study which covered the problem due to the various connotations contained in the term dialectology.
Dialect is usually associated with the form of sub-standard language that is determined by a community that exists in remote areas with low social status. Finally dialect is seen as a small branch of language study. Dialectology studies differences in linguistic elements contained in a language by involving geographical factors, while sociolinguistics (Sumarsono, 2013: 9) examines differences in linguistic elements caused by social factors.
Thus, sociodialectology is a study that links between two fields, namely the formal structure of a dialect by linguistics, the method of study by dialectology, and the social variables of its speakers by sociolinguistics.
Thus sociodialectology can be interpreted as an interdisciplinary study between linguistics that examines the formal structure of language variation, dialectology that underlies the study methodology that includes language variations in certain place units, and sociolinguistics that inspires the emergence of the phenomenon of social variable speakers of language variations (Zulaeha, 2010: 5- 5- 6).
Based on the explanation above, sociodialectology is a study that links between two fields, namely the formal structure of a dialect by linguistics, the research method by dialectology, and the social variables of its speakers by sociolinguistics. Thus sociodialectology can be interpreted as an interdisciplinary study between linguistics that examines the formal structure of language variation, dialectology which underlies the study methodology that includes language variations in a particular place unit, and sociolinguistics that inspires the emergence of the phenomenon of social variable speakers of language variations (Zulaeha, 2004: 5- 5- 6).

Sociodialectological perspective

Sociodialectological perspective
In a general sense, according to the scope of the object studied at the beginning of its growth, dialectology is the study of dialects or dialects (Chambers). Dilactology deals with regional and social aspects of language (Shuy, 1967: 3). Although this study only really received the attention of linguists towards the end of the 19th century, a long time ago there had been a lot of writing about things related to this problem (Ayatrohaedi, on Ruangguru Papers). Research conducted by Gustav Wenker in 1867 in Germany and Jules Louis Gillieron in 1880 in Switzerland opened a new chapter in dialectological research.
Sociodialectology is a combination of two scientific disciplines, namely sociolinguistics and dialectology.
Sociolinguistics is the study of languages related to society (Hudson, 1980: 3). Dialectology is a branch of linguistics that studies variations of language by treating it with a complete structure (Kridalaksana, 2001: 42). Dialectology also studies language variations in all its aspects (Keraf, 1984: 143). Trudgill (1985: 17) states that dialect refers to differences between different languages, vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.
Sociodialectological review is a perspective on the problem of language that focuses its purpose in accordance with both fields of science. It is also used to answer linguistic problems that have not yet been answered by pure linguistics.
Fernandez (1993/1994: 1) states that the study studies language variations in different dialects of a language as a system that includes various levels of language. The language variations studied are language variations based on differences in community or social groups in a particular dialect. In other words, sociodialectology examines changes in speech in a language due to social contact that occurs between different geographical regions or spaces, resulting in areas of renewal (innovation) and relics.
Likewise what happens, which is in everyday community communication activities, its use also has variations in the level of speech.
Poedjosoedarmo (1979: 3) states that the level of speech is variations of language in which the difference between one and the other is determined by differences in the polite attitude that exists in the speaker (O1) towards the interlocutor (O2).
The project based learning model was developed by three experts, namely: Lucas, Doppelt, and Laboy-Rush. Project Based Learning Lucas and Laboy-Rush did not specifically explain the steps in project design, while Doppelt emphasized alternative problem solving by choosing the main priorities in determining the project and bringing out student creativity. Lucas discussed Project Based Learning in general, Doppelt linked Project Based Learning with science and technology, and Laboy-Rush integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in project based learning.
Broadly speaking, it can be concluded that the application of the project based learning model is one of the learning models that is able to support the implementation of education in the concept of economic problems because project based learning supports the application of real life learning and experience (real life and experiential learning) so that education on economic problems can run effectively.
Project Based Learning Model is a learning model that involves focusing on meaningful questions and problems, problem solving, decision making, the process of finding various sources, providing opportunities for members to work collaboratively, and closing with a presentation of real products “.
The application of project-based learning strongly supports student creativity where Creativity is the ability to provide new ideas and apply them in problem solving. Creativity includes both aptitude characteristics such as fluency, flexibility, and originality in thought, as well as non-aptitude characteristics, such as curiosity, happy asking questions and always looking for new experiences.
Thus, the application of the project based learning model can be used as an alternative in increasing student creativity in the concept of economic problems. For the next teacher, using the project based learning model requires the ability to coordinate class and time so that learning can run optimally.

Assessment in Project Based Learning

Assessment in Project Based Learning
Project-based learning assessment must be carried out thoroughly of the attitudes, knowledge and skills acquired by students during learning. Project appraisal is an activity of evaluating a task that must be completed within a certain period / time. The task is in the form of an investigation since the planning, data collection, organizing, processing and presenting data. Project appraisal can be used to determine understanding, the ability to apply, the ability to investigate and the ability to inform students clearly on certain subjects.
In project appraisal there are at least three things that need to be considered (Nodi, on Aammel Research), namely:
1) Management ability: the ability of students to choose a topic, find information and manage the time of data collection and report writing.
2) Relevance: Conformity with subjects, taking into account the stages of knowledge, understanding and skills in learning.
3) Authenticity: The student’s project must be the result of his work, taking into account the teacher’s contribution in the form of instructions and support to the student’s project.
Project appraisal is carried out starting from the planning, the work process, to the final results of the project. For this reason, the teacher needs to determine the things or stages that need to be assessed, such as the preparation of the design, data collection, data analysis, and preparation of a written report.
Task reports or research results can also be presented in the form of posters. Implementation of the assessment can use assessment tools / instruments in the form of a checklist or rating scale. The sources of the assessment data include (Kemdikbud, 2014: 85):
a. Self-assessment is important to reflect on students themselves, not only to show how students feel and what students should be entitled to get. Students reflect on themselves how well they work in groups and how well students contribute, negotiate, listen and be open to the ideas of peers in the group. Students also evaluate the results of their own projects, effort, motivation, interests and level of productivity.
b. Peer Assessment is an important element in Project Based Learning assessment: the teacher will not always be with all students at all times in the project work process, and peer assessment will make it easier to assess students individually in a group. Students become critical of their friends’ work and strive to provide mutual feedback.
c Product evaluation rubric, Product evaluation is an assessment of the manufacturing process and quality of a product. Product assessment includes assessing the ability of students to make technology and art products, such as: food, clothing, works of art (sculptures, paintings, drawings), goods made of wood, ceramics, plastics, and metals or appropriate technological tools simple one. Product development includes 3 (three) stages and each stage needs to be assessed, namely:
1) The preparatory stage includes: assessing the ability of students and planning, exploring, and developing ideas, and designing products.
2) The stage of making a product (process), including: assessing the ability of students in selecting and using materials, tools, and techniques.
3) Product assessment stage (appraisal), including: product evaluation produced by students according to established criteria.
The implementation of learning activities is inseparable from the assessment activities. Success in learning can be determined by assessment / assessment. Likewise with project-based learning, to assess each activity carried out by students, the teacher needs to apply authentic assessment.
Project learning is authentic learning, where learning is tangible, visible, and adapted to projects for students (Fogarty, 1997); and Hosnan (2014) suggest that authentic assessment requires authentic learning as well. In addition, the George Lucas Educational Foundation (2007) suggests that project-based learning is suitable for authentic assessment, because authentic assessment and evaluation allow teachers / instructors to systematically document children’s progress and development.
Authentic assessment or authentic assessment emphasizes specific skills and competencies to apply the skills and knowledge that have been mastered (Stiggins in Majid, 2015).
Mueller (2016) suggests that authentic assessment is a form of assessment in which students are asked to show real assignments that demonstrate the application of important and meaningful knowledge and skills.
Through authentic assessment each activity carried out by students in project-based learning, both from the planning phase to producing a product, can be significantly assessed. However, Mueller (2016) also suggests that authentic assessments complement traditional assessments; because there are things that cannot be assessed with traditional assessments, they can be assessed with authentic assessments.
Improved learning of each student in a learning activity that is measured at the beginning and end of learning can be done with traditional assessments, such as paper and pencil tests. However, a real assessment of the abilities possessed by students during the learning process can be done with authentic assessments.
Limitations of traditional assessments in assessing the real abilities possessed by students can be done with authentic assessments, and vice versa limitations of authentic assessments in terms of assessing each individual within a limited time can be done with traditional assessments. So it is exactly what Mueller (2016) said that it is very possible for a teacher to mix (mix) between authentic assessment and traditional assessment in meeting needs.

Project-Based Learning Syntax

Project-Based Learning Syntax
Project Based Learning in general has a step guideline: planning (creating), creating (creating or implementing), and processing (processing) (Munandar on Nubi Journals, 2009). These three steps can be explained as follows. a. Planning At this stage exposes students to real problems in the field, and encourages them to identify these problems, then students are asked to find alternative solutions to problems that students find in the field and design problem solving models. The activities carried out are a) designing the entire project, the activities in this step are: preparing the project, in more detail including: providing information on learning objectives, teachers conveying real phenomena as sources of problems, motivating in raising problems and making proposals,
b) organizing work, the activities in this step are: planning the project, in more detail includes: organizing collaboration, choosing topics, selecting project related information, making predictions, and making investigative designs. b. Creating Project implementation that provides the widest opportunity for students to design and conduct investigative reports and present reports (products) both orally and in writing.
In this stage students develop project ideas, combine ideas that arise in groups, and build projects. This second stage includes development and documentation activities. At this stage students also produce a product (artifact) which will later be presented in class. c. Processing Activities at this stage include project presentations and project evaluations.
The group that actually communicates the creations or findings of the group investigation including reflection and follow-up on projects: evaluation, carried out at this stage includes peer evaluation, self-evaluation and portfolio refers to the syntax of Project Based Learning, generally can be delivered in learning based project students can learn actively to formulate problems, conduct investigations, analyze and interpret data, and make decisions to solve the problems they face.
This stage includes the project presentation and evaluation.
At the project presentation there will be actual communication of creations or findings from group investigations, while the evaluation stage will reflect reflections on project results, analysis and evaluation of the learning processes. Other experts stressed that the Project Based Learning stage included the following stages: a. Projects. This stage is done by the teacher outside of class hours. at this stage the teacher designs the project description, determines the project footing, prepares the media and various learning resources, and prepares the learning conditions. b. Phase 1 Identifying problems at this stage students make observations of certain objects. Based on these observations students identify problems and formulate problems in the form of questions.
c. Phase 2 Creating a design and project implementation schedule, at this stage students collaboratively with group members or with the teacher start to design projects, and carry out other preparatory activities. d. Phase 3 Conducting research, at this stage students conduct initial research activities as a basic model for the product to be developed. Based on these studies students collect data and then analyze the data in accordance with data analysis techniques that are relevant to the research conducted.
e. Phase 4 arranging the product draft / prototype At this stage students begin to make the initial product as planned and the results of the research they are doing. f. Phase 5 Measuring, Assessing, and improving the product, at this stage students look back at the initial product that was made, look for weaknesses, and improve the product.
In practice, the activity of measuring and evaluating products can be done by asking opinions or criticisms from other group members or the opinions of the teacher. g. Phase 6 Product Finalization and Publication At this stage students make product finalization. Once believed to be as expected, the product is published. h. Post-project At this stage the teacher assesses, provides reinforcement, input, and suggestions for improvement of products that have been produced by students (Abidin, 2013: 172).
From the opinions of the experts above, we can conclude that the steps of the Project Based Learning model are: a. Learning that begins with fundamental questions, namely questions that can stimulate students to enter in learning and linking the material to be taught with everyday life that is expected to be more easily understood by students.
b. Design project planning that is carried out jointly between the teacher and students who are negotiating about the rules of the game, as well as tools and materials that will be used in completing a project. c. Arrange a schedule of activities in completing the project together which contains the target implementation time, which is expected to be able to be on time and on target. d. Monitor students and project progress, ie at this stage the teacher must monitor (monitor) the activities of the students while completing the project, which is done by guiding and facilitating students in each process. The teacher is the responsibility in this process and outcome.
e. Testing Results, at this stage the teacher conducts an assessment aimed at measuring the achievement of the minimum completeness criteria that play a role in evaluating the progress of each student. f. Evaluating experience, this stage is the final stage in this activity, teachers and students reflect on both individuals and groups. At this stage students are also asked to express their feelings and experiences while completing the project. Teachers and students conduct discussions in order to improve performance during the learning process, which in turn will find new findings and answer the problems raised in the first stage.

Student Activity in Project Based Learning

Student Activity in Project Based Learning
In Project Based Learning, students are included in group activities besides working alone. Furthermore, individual activities in project-based learning are grouped into three categories of individual activities, group activities, and inter-group activities (According information from Pratama Papers);. a. Individually In plain view or with psychological tests, of course, each student has different abilities in terms of the learning approach to the completion of the task. While working on the project, each student carries out activities such as: visualizing project activities and looking for assignments to be done, arranging schedules, organizing learning materials, organizing documents (computer files), sending messages to instructors or experts, self assessment. The description of the activity description above can provide meaningful learning steps. b. In groups When students work in groups, students must work together.
Cooperation takes place in the form of basic activities such as: brainstorming, discussion, editing documents together. Synchronize communication via audio, video or text, organize group documents, task scheduling, peer assessment. Some of these activities can be done with groups. c. Between groups In project-based learning, forms of sharing information and knowledge with other groups can be described through several examples of these activities, namely: presentations, peer reviews, contributing to discussion forums. 8. Teacher Activities in Project Based Learning In Project Based Learning, instruction occurs through training, discussion, guidance, and others. This section is a teaching activity in the Project Based Learning approach.
a. Project Design, the project design stage is very basic. Incorrect design of project activities will have an adverse effect on the teaching and learning process. b. Shows some aspects of project design. This activity shows several aspects of project design. This activity is appropriate. 1) Content: the teacher decides what topics are covered by the project. A good project is suitable for interdisciplinary. 2) Learning outcomes: Teachers must mark the basic knowledge and skills that students will acquire. Also outlines the general skills targeted by the project. 3) Learning outcomes must be conveyed in project activities. 4) Focal Points: to motivate students and get their full involvement the project must be made challenging and related to real life problems.
5) Activities and deliverables: The design stage determines activities such as investigation, research, problem solving, use of tools, and others. 6) Methods: class and group organization projects, training, and supporting materials, as well as feedback procedures, resources, and others. 7) Assessment: Self-assessment and by a team of experts have an important role in the Project Based Learning approach. c. Teachers prepare and provide task handouts, such as methodology explanatory leaflets, instructions, or instructions for use. It also provides access to learning material and other resources, such as lecture lecture notes, video-taped talks and the process of conducting exercises and making demonstrations if needed.
d. Assessments must be integrated into project activities. Because Project-Based Learning emphasizes student success, self-evaluation and by a team of experts must be included in the assessment strategy. e. Feedback can be started from teachers, coaches, experts, clients, and others. Presentations and discussions are good tools for feedback. Teachers must organize feedback procedures. Project-based learning is a learning model that uses problems as a first step in gathering and integrating new knowledge based on experience in actual activities. Through the project based learning model, the inquiry process begins with raising a guiding question and guiding students in a collaborative project that integrates various subjects (material) in the curriculum. Project Based Learning is an in-depth investigation of a real-world topic, this will be valuable for students’ attention and effort (Kemdikbud, 2014: 33).