Use of Information Technology in Public Services
The use of information technology is one alternative to bureaucratic innovation and improvement of public services. This trend has become a global phenomenon, due to the tendency of the development of society and its economy to be increasingly driven by technological innovation. It is even undeniable that outside the bureaucratic environment, technological innovations have resulted in a better quality of life than before.
The benefits of IT to the government bureaucracy have been proven by various groups, both practitioners and academics. Even Al Gore and Tany Blair (Wai Phyo Aung Journals, 2018-2019) enthusiastically explain the benefits that can be obtained by the existence of e-governmen, namely:
Improving the quality of government services to its stakeholders (community, business people, and industry), especially in terms of performance effectiveness and efficiency in various national lives; Increase transparency, control, and accountability in the administration of government in the context of applying the concept of good corporate governance.
Significantly reduce the total administration, relations and interaction costs incurred by the government and its stakeholders for the needs of daily activities.
Providing opportunities for the government to obtain new sources of revenue through interaction with interested parties.
Creating a new environment that can answer various problems faced quickly and precisely in line with global changes and existing trends.
Empowering the community and other parties as government partners in the process of making public policy equally and democratically.
Although it is recognized that the benefits of e-government for government bureaucratic services, in practice it does not escape from various obstacles, including cultural factors. Our bureaucratic work culture is an obstacle in implementing ICT / E-Gov in the implementation of bureaucratic tasks. Occurrence of cultural crystallization Origin of Mr. to superiors is one of the factors that reject the use of ICT / E-Gov Turnip (in Pramusinto and Kumorotomo, 2009: 353.
Based on experience, in land administration services the land offices have used a variety of information technology products, but in reality the service process is still relatively slow. Land services through the Land Office in principle are land data and information services.
Data stored at the Land Office is data obtained and processed through a complicated and lengthy process following the rules set forth in the Regulation of the Head of BPN number 1 of 2005 concerning Standard Operating Procedures (SPOPP). Data updating is always done if there is a change in the subject or object of land rights.
One effort to optimize the tasks of land services by utilizing advances in information technology is the construction and development of a computerized land office (KKP). The Land Office is the leading base in service activities. Service model based on on-line system was developed. Development of online services, building an electronic data base, building hardware infrastructure and network connections, increasing human resources in the ability to master IT and socializing activities in internal and extreme circles are the stages of activities that must be carried out in offices that are and have apply the CTF.
The Computerized Development of the Land Office not only provides services by utilizing information and communication technology on-line system, but also builds a digital database. Through the KKP program a digitalization of land data has been carried out (Land Book, Measurement Letter, Measurement Chart and Land Registration Map). One thing that is not denied is that the stigma about land services with the accompanying effects is a problem that must be a challenge for all people in land. The attitude of the public is increasingly critical in responding to any form of service, especially those relating to public services.
Discussion about bureaucracy as an organization cannot be separated from environmental factors. The presence of systems theory as a pioneer of modern perspectives opens new insights into organizational theory. Unlike the classical perspective, the modern perspective incorporates environmental elements as determinants and tries to develop theories that explain the relationship between organizations and the environment. In this connection Hatch (1997: 76) grouped them into two periods, namely: (1) the early 1960s to the late 1970s, where theories developed were contingent in the sense of the environment influencing the organization, and (2) the period the early 1980s until now, where theories developed were more emphasized in a more detailed explanation of how the environment affects organizations.
Burn and Stalker (1961) in their research in England and Scotland found that the organizations they studied turned out to be divided into two different types of structures, namely mechanical and organic structures (Gerlof, 1985: 51).
Although this research was conducted on industrial organizations, this classification was also found in public organizations or government bureaucracy.
A mechanistic organizational structure is based on the consideration that a stable work system is needed so that the organization can carry out various functions effectively and efficiently. Therefore, for each position or position in the organization must be clearly defined authority or authority, information needs, competencies, and technical activities undertaken. Those who occupy these positions must not violate the specified limits. In this way, the organization can run efficiently because it is based on standardized procedures, especially for routine tasks.
Whereas organic structure works with the opposite principle. This structure relies on the creativity and adaptability of individuals in carrying out their duties. Therefore, the limits as stated above are kept to a minimum, so that members of the organization have more space to adjust their various tasks in line with changes in the environment at hand.
According to Burn and Stalker, that mechanistic organizations run effectively if the environment is stable and the tasks performed can be handled by routine mechanisms. While for environments that tend to change and the nature of the problem cannot be overcome by routine means, organic organizations will be more supportive (Kusdi, 2009: 73-74).
The existence of bureaucracy as an organization is inseparable from its environment. The intended environment can be in the form of internal and external environment of the organization. The internal environment of the organization not only includes physical conditions that are invisible, but things that are not explicitly seen but also affect internal environmental conditions, such as work culture, employee habits, organizational behavior, discretionary systems, and others. The internal condition of the employee is constantly changing and developing, so that demands an appropriate learning, so that the problems that arise can be anticipated. While the external environment includes other agencies, private organizations, communities, government policies, technology, socio-economic conditions that experience dynamics from time to time (Matheus and Sulistiyani, 2011: 47-48)
Use of Information Technology in Public Services