Growth and Production of Sunflower Plants
Different types of soil have different characteristics and characteristics and the characteristics of this soil will be responded to by cultivated plants. The naming of the type of soil is related to its characteristics, including the level of fertility. Various soil properties can affect the growth rate and soil productivity. The various properties possessed by the land also determine the response of plants to various inputs (management) which are carried out such as fertilization and liming (Khin Myint Mar Journals, 2019). Soils with medium texture provide favorable conditions for root development, water and air availability. Colloidal soils (clay and organic) with a high CEC will provide sufficient nutrients and can receive enough fertilizer to supply the plant’s nutrient needs. Soils that are already sufficiently developed and are old, generally have low pH and have a low colloidal clay with a low CEC and have a high retention of P elements. P is very high.
The availability of nutrients in such lands is generally low and plants often experience nutrient deficiencies. On such soil the efficiency of fertilizer is generally low. In this soil the presence of organic material is needed (Soepardi, 1983).
The addition of organic matter, in most types of soil, especially in soils with low organic matter content, will change the properties of soils that do not support plant growth in a better direction. The presence of organic matter in finely textured soils increases soil aggregation, so that porosity and aeration get better. In sandy textured soil the addition of organic matter increases the holding capacity of the soil to water, so that there is enough water in the dry season and increases the holding capacity of nutrients, especially nutrients from fertilizers so it is not easily leached (Sanchez, 1982).
In acid soils, organic matter increases the activity of microorganisms, so that positively charged materials, especially heavy metals will form a chelate, so P fertilizer is given and P is fixed. In this soil organic matter also increases soil pH, soil CEC, soil capacity to retain water, and nutrient availability for plants (Uehara and Gilmann, 1981; Stevenson, 1982).
Sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important plants producing vegetable oil. Sunflower seed oil is used for making cooking oil and margarine. The seed oil contains various bioactive components that can be used as medicine and cosmetics. Therefore this commodity has the potential for agribusiness and agro-industry (Winarno, 1999).
For the development of sunflower planting, various researches on agronomic activities are needed to obtain high seed production and high seed oil. Meanwhile, according to Weiss (1983) and Kaul and Das (1986) the diameter of a sunflower is influenced by soil type, and variations in size and weight of the seeds are affected by various acts of cultivation. Therefore the response of growth and production of sunflowers to the properties and characteristics of different types of soil and the addition of organic material to these soils need to be examined.
This study aims to study (1) the growth and production of sunflower plants in several types of soil, (2) the effect of providing organic material on sunflower plants in several types of soil
The study was conducted in the Experimental Garden of the Faculty of Agriculture, St Thomas SU Catholic University, in Tanjungsari Village, Tuntung District. The study was conducted from June to November 2002.
The study used a separate plot design with three replications. The treatment of organic matter as the main plot, consists of two levels, namely without the provision of organic matter (B0) and the provision of organic material (150 g chicken manure per 10 kg of oven dry soil = B1). Top soil type of soil as planting media is subplot, consisting of four levels, namely: Andosol soil (T1), Hydromorphic soil (T2), Alluvial soil (T3), Podsolik Merah Putih (T4), which are in the classification of Soil Taxonomy respectively – including the Hapludand, Tropaquept, Tropofluvent, and Paleudult groups. Each experimental plot consisted of one polybag with one plant.
To get the type of soil according to treatment used Medan soil map (Darul et al, 1989). Then a morphological examination is needed to determine the type of soil.
The soil used as a planting medium is the topsoil at a depth of 0-20 cm. Growing media is put into polybags as much as 10 kg of oven dry. For the treatment of adding organic matter (B1), 150 g of chicken manure is added per 10 kg of oven dry soil. Then the soil and organic matter are mixed evenly and left for two weeks. The first fertilization is carried out at planting with the following dosage: 4 g Urea / 10 kg of oven dry soil, 6 g of TSP / 10 kg of oven dry soil, 4 g KCl / 10 kg of oven dry soil. The second fertilization, carried out at 4 weeks after planting, as much as 4 g Urea / 10 kg of oven dry soil.
Growth response and production variables of sunflower were observed as follows: plant height, number of leaves, girth, root dry weight, number of branches, number of flowering branches, age of flowering, age of harvest, flower diameter, dry weight of discs, total number of seeds , number of pithy seeds, total seed weight, pithy seed weight, weight per seed. Variable data were analyzed by variance at the 5% test level. To determine the level of difference between treatments, response variable data were analyzed with the smallest significant difference test at 5% level (Gomez and Gomez, 1995).
Growth and Production of Sunflower Plants