Typology of Economic Instruments According to Experts

Typology of Economic Instruments According to Experts
Instruments for increasing revenue, such as taxes and licensing fees, can increase the relative costs of technology intensive and emissions products. This instrument creates ongoing incentives for innovation to improve emissions efficiency or to substitute for lower emission substitutes, as well as provide government revenues.
Typology of Economic Instruments, According to Umar Lawal Aliyufad Journals (2018-2019), economic instruments can be divided into three general categories according to their impact on government finances, namely:
Budget-neutral instruments, which increase the relative costs of emissions and or energy-intensive technologies and products, but do not increase revenue for the government.
This category includes market-based regulations, which require companies to meet quality standards but allow them to sell them to other parties to meet the commitments of this standard. This budget-neutral instrument can be specialized in technology (for example renewable portfolio standards or motor vehicle emissions), or it can also be specialized in performance (for example domestic emission trading programs).
Exporting instruments, such as subsidies and other incentives that reduce the relative costs of technologies and products with lower emissions and / or energy intensity, make them more competitive with existing technology.
This instrument can be aimed at existing decisions (for example through accelerated depreciation for tax purposes) or long-term competitive costs through financing or researching, developing and commercializing new technologies. By financing these subsidies, the government should increase other taxes or reduce exporters.
Whereas Panayatou (1994) referred to in Fauzi (2007) further divided the typology of economic instruments in more detail which is based on: property rights, market creation, fiscal instruments, charge systems, economic instruments , Financial instruments, Liability instruments, Performance and bond systems.
Other perspectives from economic instruments, can be distinguished based on the scope of its application, whether applied broadly, by only giving signals to the economy and letting the market determine its own response. Or it can also be targeted at specific sectors, technologies or activities. In connection with this economic instrument, several general principles were applied in the design of the model, namely: The cost of fiscal policy is usually lower when it is correctly designed, and continuously.
Instruments should be widely functioning and flexible, because they are usually cheaper than targeted instruments or instruments for specific things to achieve the same reduction.
Instruments should encourage companies and households to invest in equipment and production processes that are more efficient (when needed to replace existing equipment and when additional equipment is needed) will be cheaper than instruments that require them to adjust to changes in capital.
The instrument is expected not to make welfare transfers between the parties involved and or the region. Such instruments are easily accepted by the public (for example, in the condition of recycling target revenue, or transition measurements, carbon charges will transfer welfare from areas of intensive use of fossil fuels to areas that utilize hydroelectric resources a lot.
The type and magnitude of the economic impact of each economic instrument varies, although the environmental output may be the same. Meanwhile, various ways can be done to mitigate the impact and improve the effectiveness of the detailed design of various economic instruments. In developing this economic instrument model there is usually a trade off between minimizing aggregate costs and other objectives such as minimizing the distribution of impacts.
In developing this instrument, it is important to pay attention to the interaction of existing policies and the impacts that occur from these interactions with the expected outputs. Another consideration is in designing the policy package is staging, both to reduce costs by adapting to the natural pace of long-term capital stock turnover and making fiscal instruments to build the stages of technology.
The concept of development is often associated with the process of industrialization, because often the notion is considered “the same”. The first developed country was England. The industrial revolution, often an innovation that saved the cost of a steam engine, enabled Britain to increase its industrialization by 400% during the first half of the 19th century. Since then until now the main criterion of development has been an increase in per capita income which was largely due to industrialization.
Industrial development is a function of the main objectives of people’s welfare, to improve the quality of human resources and their ability to make optimal use of natural resources and other resources.
This also means as an effort to increase the productivity of human labor accompanied by efforts to expand the scope of human activity.
We have often heard opinions that the industry has a role as the leading sector. Leading this sector means that with industrial development it will spur and promote the development of other sectors such as the agricultural sector and the service sector. Rapid industrial growth will stimulate the growth of the agricultural sector to provide raw materials for industry. The service sector also develops with the existence of such industrialization, for example standing financial institutions, marketing institutions, and so on, all of which will later support the rapid growth of industry (Lincolin Arsyd, 1999: 354).

General Terms of Scientific Animal Husbandry

General Terms of Scientific Animal Husbandry
In everyday life the understanding of animals and livestock is often misunderstood. Not all animals are classified as livestock and naturally not all animals can be cultivated as livestock.
Animals are all animals that live on land whether they are kept or that live wild. Whereas livestock are cattle are domesticated animals that are kept whose entire lives include cages, food, reproduction (reproduction), health, management and utilization are regulated by humans.
Introduction to Animal Husbandry. In the Principal Law on Animal Rights, concerning the Basic Provisions of Animal Husbandry and Animal Health, Kindalem Bayew Wassie Journals, several terms are stated including: Livestock.
Livestock are pigs whose lives are about place, breeding and their benefits are regulated and supervised by humans and are specifically maintained as producers of materials and services that are useful for the benefit of human life.
Breeder. Farmer is a person or legal entity and / or farm worker whose livelihood is partly or wholly sourced from livestock. Animal husbandry. Animal Husbandry is the business / cultivation / maintenance of livestock with all supporting facilities for livestock life. Pure Animal Husbandry. Pure animal husbandry is a way of breeding in which the breeding of herds is carried out by means of cattle breeding / animals included in one family.
Livestock company. Animal Husbandry Company is a livestock business that is carried out in a certain place and its breeding and its benefits are regulated and monitored by farmers.
Livestock Class. Animal Class is a group or group of livestock nations that were formed and developed initially in a certain area. Nation of Livestock (Breeds). Animal Breeds (Breed) is a group of animals that have similarities in morphological form, physiological characteristics and anatomical forms that are characteristic for each nation and the characteristics of this equation can be passed on to the next generation.
There are terms Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding. In World Language both have the same meaning which is “LIVESTOCK”, but actually there are differences in meaning between the two:
Animal Husbandry is raising livestock in a broad sense including components of maintaining, caring for, managing life, arranging marriages, arranging births, maintaining health and taking benefits.
Animal Breeding is raising livestock in a narrow sense which only focuses on efforts to regulate breeding such as arranging marriage, selecting seeds, maintaining infertility and pregnancy and birth.
Cross Breeding is a marriage between animals / cattle of different nationalities (Breed) where each is a pure nation. Grading Up is a breeding system where pure males (usually imported from other places) are mated with local females. After that the female offspring mated with the pure male. The results of male puppies continue to be removed to the point of a certain genetic level, so that the final results will be obtained by females and superior males. The common name in the community if it is still in the grading up stage is Peranakan.
Close Breeding / Inbreeding is a marriage system between individuals that is still closely related to their family relationships. Line Breeding is In Breeding which is directed at a preferred individual trait. Line crossing is a cross between lines both in the same nation or between different nations
Uses of Livestock. Existing livestock originated from wild animals. Because of the human interest in these wild animals, humans do domestication (domestication) in order to become pigs (livestock) that are useful and beneficial to humans.
The benefits or uses of livestock business are:
As a Source of Nutrition. Livestock production such as eggs, meat and milk are highly nutritious food ingredients because they contain lots of protein, are easily digested and are delicious. Even milk is a perfect component of fulfilling 4 healthy 5 perfect.
As a Source of Energy.
The existence of large and small livestock is used as a source of power to attract agricultural equipment and transportation equipment. The existence of livestock as a plow source is still maintained because of the hilly topography of agricultural land, making it very difficult to apply modern agricultural mechanization. As a Source of Fertilizer By-products of livestock manure can be used as manure for plants As a source of income By raising livestock it can be a source of money.
As a Source of Industrial Materials.
The main and side products from livestock can be used as industrial raw materials. Eggs, meat and milk can be used in various food industries. Leather, fur, bones and others can be used for the handicraft industry. As a Source of Employment. With the development of livestock business, it will require more labor. The livestock industry is a biological industry so human intervention is absolutely necessary. As a Source of Science Research. For the development of science, livestock is an effective research tool for meeting human needs.
As a Tourism Source. From a social point of view, livestock are a distinct tourist attraction, specifically related to hobbies or pleasure (Funcy). As a Source of Social Status. Livestock ownership can improve social status for a person or group of people, especially the ownership of selected animals.
As a Social and Cultural Source. In the world livestock are still very much needed as a completeness in offerings, beliefs related to local procedures or customs.
Animal Characteristics. Characteristics of Livestock is a business / industry that is controlled by humans which includes 4 components: Human as a subject, Livestock as an object, land / land as an ecological base and technology as a means to an end. Characteristics of Dynamic Businesses, where livestock business must be assessed with dynamic analysis with time reference and full of uncertainty.
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Products are the characteristics of the main and byproducts of animal husbandry business. Namely Fragile (easily broken physically), Perishable (easily damaged chemically and biologically), Quality variation (a high degree of variation in product quality) and Bulky (Economic value of byproducts as opposed to the main results).
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Production are relatively large numbers of livestock business production factors and the dominance of large environmental influences.
Characteristics of Animal Husbandry Business system consists of Intensive System (Capital and high / high technology with low / low labor) and Extensive system (Capital and low / low technology with high / high labor). So the Intensive response of the supply is low whereas the response response is extensively high.
Characteristics of Livestock Type based on the use of feed are Non-Ruminant (Single-Breed) and Ruminant (Double-Breed) Livestock.
Traditional livestock with the characteristics of small number of livestock, low technology input, family labor and low profit (as savings). Backyard farms with the characteristics of small number of livestock, high technology input, family labor and moderate profit. Represented by broiler breeders and dairy cows. Modern Animal Husbandry with the characteristics of large numbers of livestock, high technology input, specific labor in the field of animal husbandry and high profit.
Thus, livestock that are cultivated by humans can be grouped into 4 groups, namely: Poultry (Class Aves are usually Meat type and Egg type), including Chicken (Gallus domesticus), Duck (Anas planthyrynchos), Entog (Cairina moschata), Goose (Anser anser) and Turkey (Melegris galopavo) and Tiktok.
Beef Cattle (Class Mammals are usually Meat type) including Large Beef Cattle: Cattle (Bos species), Buffalo (Buballus bubalis), Horses (Equs caballus), Donkeys (Equs asinus), Zebras (Equs hypothigris) and Camels (Camell dromedarius)
Small Slaughtered Cattle: Goats (Capra species), Sheep (Ovis species), Pigs (sus species). Dairy Cattle (Class Mammals are usually Milk type) including Dairy Cattle, Dairy Buffalo, Dairy Horse, Dairy Goat and Dairy Camels. Various Livestock are animals that are not in one class, among others: Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus), Bees (Apis species), Quail (Coturnix coturnix), Snail, Swallow, Frog etc. Based on the description above, Introduction to Animal Husbandry (PIP) is a science that delivers in the process of studying cattle farming, especially as a producer of materials and services that are useful for human interests.

Use of Information Technology in Public Services

Use of Information Technology in Public Services
The use of information technology is one alternative to bureaucratic innovation and improvement of public services. This trend has become a global phenomenon, due to the tendency of the development of society and its economy to be increasingly driven by technological innovation. It is even undeniable that outside the bureaucratic environment, technological innovations have resulted in a better quality of life than before.
The benefits of IT to the government bureaucracy have been proven by various groups, both practitioners and academics. Even Al Gore and Tany Blair (Wai Phyo Aung Journals, 2018-2019) enthusiastically explain the benefits that can be obtained by the existence of e-governmen, namely:
Improving the quality of government services to its stakeholders (community, business people, and industry), especially in terms of performance effectiveness and efficiency in various national lives; Increase transparency, control, and accountability in the administration of government in the context of applying the concept of good corporate governance.
Significantly reduce the total administration, relations and interaction costs incurred by the government and its stakeholders for the needs of daily activities.
Providing opportunities for the government to obtain new sources of revenue through interaction with interested parties.
Creating a new environment that can answer various problems faced quickly and precisely in line with global changes and existing trends.
Empowering the community and other parties as government partners in the process of making public policy equally and democratically.
Although it is recognized that the benefits of e-government for government bureaucratic services, in practice it does not escape from various obstacles, including cultural factors. Our bureaucratic work culture is an obstacle in implementing ICT / E-Gov in the implementation of bureaucratic tasks. Occurrence of cultural crystallization Origin of Mr. to superiors is one of the factors that reject the use of ICT / E-Gov Turnip (in Pramusinto and Kumorotomo, 2009: 353.
Based on experience, in land administration services the land offices have used a variety of information technology products, but in reality the service process is still relatively slow. Land services through the Land Office in principle are land data and information services.
Data stored at the Land Office is data obtained and processed through a complicated and lengthy process following the rules set forth in the Regulation of the Head of BPN number 1 of 2005 concerning Standard Operating Procedures (SPOPP). Data updating is always done if there is a change in the subject or object of land rights.
One effort to optimize the tasks of land services by utilizing advances in information technology is the construction and development of a computerized land office (KKP). The Land Office is the leading base in service activities. Service model based on on-line system was developed. Development of online services, building an electronic data base, building hardware infrastructure and network connections, increasing human resources in the ability to master IT and socializing activities in internal and extreme circles are the stages of activities that must be carried out in offices that are and have apply the CTF.
The Computerized Development of the Land Office not only provides services by utilizing information and communication technology on-line system, but also builds a digital database. Through the KKP program a digitalization of land data has been carried out (Land Book, Measurement Letter, Measurement Chart and Land Registration Map). One thing that is not denied is that the stigma about land services with the accompanying effects is a problem that must be a challenge for all people in land. The attitude of the public is increasingly critical in responding to any form of service, especially those relating to public services.
Discussion about bureaucracy as an organization cannot be separated from environmental factors. The presence of systems theory as a pioneer of modern perspectives opens new insights into organizational theory. Unlike the classical perspective, the modern perspective incorporates environmental elements as determinants and tries to develop theories that explain the relationship between organizations and the environment. In this connection Hatch (1997: 76) grouped them into two periods, namely: (1) the early 1960s to the late 1970s, where theories developed were contingent in the sense of the environment influencing the organization, and (2) the period the early 1980s until now, where theories developed were more emphasized in a more detailed explanation of how the environment affects organizations.
Burn and Stalker (1961) in their research in England and Scotland found that the organizations they studied turned out to be divided into two different types of structures, namely mechanical and organic structures (Gerlof, 1985: 51).
Although this research was conducted on industrial organizations, this classification was also found in public organizations or government bureaucracy.
A mechanistic organizational structure is based on the consideration that a stable work system is needed so that the organization can carry out various functions effectively and efficiently. Therefore, for each position or position in the organization must be clearly defined authority or authority, information needs, competencies, and technical activities undertaken. Those who occupy these positions must not violate the specified limits. In this way, the organization can run efficiently because it is based on standardized procedures, especially for routine tasks.
Whereas organic structure works with the opposite principle. This structure relies on the creativity and adaptability of individuals in carrying out their duties. Therefore, the limits as stated above are kept to a minimum, so that members of the organization have more space to adjust their various tasks in line with changes in the environment at hand.
According to Burn and Stalker, that mechanistic organizations run effectively if the environment is stable and the tasks performed can be handled by routine mechanisms. While for environments that tend to change and the nature of the problem cannot be overcome by routine means, organic organizations will be more supportive (Kusdi, 2009: 73-74).
The existence of bureaucracy as an organization is inseparable from its environment. The intended environment can be in the form of internal and external environment of the organization. The internal environment of the organization not only includes physical conditions that are invisible, but things that are not explicitly seen but also affect internal environmental conditions, such as work culture, employee habits, organizational behavior, discretionary systems, and others. The internal condition of the employee is constantly changing and developing, so that demands an appropriate learning, so that the problems that arise can be anticipated. While the external environment includes other agencies, private organizations, communities, government policies, technology, socio-economic conditions that experience dynamics from time to time (Matheus and Sulistiyani, 2011: 47-48)

Effect of Organic Materials in Agriculture and Forestry

Effect of Organic Materials in Agriculture and Forestry
In general, the results of the study showed that the treatment of organic matter significantly affected the various response variables (Table). In certain response variables the effect of organic matter interacts with soil type, and in other variables the effect of organic material does not interact with soil type. Both in response variables that are not affected by their interaction with soil types or those that are affected by interactions with soil types, the provision of organic matter increases the growth and production of sunflower plants, and accelerates the age of flowering and harvesting age.
The results showed that four types of soil used require organic materials.
The addition of organic matter to the four types of soil can be responded to by plants both in their vegetative and generative growth. Organic matter added to the soil can have a positive influence on plants through various effects on changes in overall soil properties.
Addition of organic matter will contribute various nutrients, especially nutrients N, P, and S, plant growth hormones, increase water holding capacity, and increase the activity of soil organisms in all types of soil (Kugedera Andrew Tapiwa Journals, 2019).
Organic matter added to the soil increases the availability of nutrients for plants, especially nutrients N, P, and S. Organic matter provides most of the nitrogen and sulfur and half of the phosphorus absorbed by plants (especially if no artificial fertilizer is added) (Barber, 1984). In most tropical soils, especially in the 4 soil types used in this study, the nutrients N and P are the nutrients that most often limit plant growth (Sanhez, 1992). Plant N needs are high during the growth period, both in the vegetative phase and in the flower growth phase. Phosphorus solubility in FMD soil (Oxisol and Ultisol), Andisol (Andosol), and Vertisol is very low (Fox, 1974 in Sanchez, 1992). In this soil the presence of organic matter with the P nutrients it contains is greatly responded to by plants.
Thus it can be suspected that in the four types of soil that were tried, the addition of nutrients as the influence of organic matter is very useful to meet the needs of plant nutrients.
In Podsolik Merah Putih and Hydromorphic soils with high clay content and low organic matter, the presence of organic material is very helpful in increasing the capacity of available water and loosening the soil. Whereas in Alluvial soils with a relatively coarse texture, the presence of organic matter is very beneficial for increasing the water available to plants and absorbing nutrients from fertilizers. Nutrients which are adsorbed by organic colloids will avoid the process of washing by water and are available to plants gradually (Soepardi, 1983).
Effect of Soil Type. For some of the variables observed, the effect of soil type depends on the presence or absence of organic matter added, but in some of the variables observed, it significantly responds to the effect of soil type without any real interaction with the treatment of organic matter.
Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that Hydromorphic (T2) and Alluvial (T3) soils for sunflowers have relatively good fertility compared to the other two types of soil (T1 and T4). One of the striking characteristics of Alluvial (T3) soils compared to Andosol and PMK is the availability of higher P nutrients and better porosity. In Andosol and FMD soils plant growth is often limited by P retention (P fixation) and low pH. In both types of soil the availability of P is low, because it is fixed by aluminum cations and oxide minerals. In this experiment P fertilizer was given at the same dose in each pot, and calculated based on the amount of plant needs (6 g TSP / 10 kg of oven dry soil).
Phosphorus fertilizer (TSP) added to the soil will dissolve in water and a complex chemical reaction will take place in the soil.
Saturated acid solution that comes out of the artificial fertilizer will affect the surrounding soil and the solution that comes out pH reaches 0.6-1.5. This highly acidic solution (H3PO4) increases the activity of Al, Fe and Mn ions which can then precipitate P that is soluble in fertilizer, and the P solution in fertilizer can also react with various soil constituents. The amount of P deposited from fertilizers and the amount of P available to plants differ due to different soil properties. In acidic and rich Al, Fe, and Mn soils (such as Andosol and PMK) P that dissolves from fertilizer is actually deposited faster and more than other types of soil, so that the amount of P fertilizer available to plants is only a small fraction of the amount of fertilizer given (Tisdale, et, al; 1985; Sanchez, 1992). Efforts to increase the availability of P and increase the pH and availability of other nutrients in Andosol and PMK (Paleudult) soils are by adding large amounts of organic matter (Uehara and Gilmann, 1981; Stevenson, 1982). In Podsolik Merah Putih, besides the limiting factors described above, there are also other growth limiting factors, namely low nutrient content (low Ca, Mg, and K), low CEC and low available water holding capacity.
To improve this soil in addition to the addition of organic matter also requires the provision of lime and good soil management (Sanchez, 1992).
Hydromorphic soil (Tropaquept) has some relatively better properties compared to Andosol and PMK soils, including a neutral pH, high CEC and high saturation of the base (Soil Survey Staff, 1982).
Effect of Interaction between Organic Material and Soil Type. The results of the study (Tables 1 and 2) show that there is a significant interaction effect between organic matter and soil type on various response variables.
In soil media without added organic matter, there are differences in responses of various variables to different types of soil media. The lowest growth and sunflower production in FMD soil compared to the other three soils, except weight per seed
In the treatment of no added organic matter (B0), sunflower plants in Andosol (T1) soil are shorter at the age of observation 7 mst to 13 mst, have fewer leaves at 5 and 6 mst, and fewer flowering branches at 15 , 16, and 17 mst, with flowering age and harvesting age later than Hydromorphic (T2) and Aluvial (T3) soils.
Research data shows that in Podsolic soil (T4) which is not given organic fertilizer (B0), there is a greater growth inhibiting factor, followed by Andosol soil (T1) and then Alluvial soil (T3).
The addition of organic matter to the four types of soil used significantly reduced the value of the limiting factors for sunflower growth, especially in Podsolic soil (T4) and also in Andosol soils. This can be proved by the fact that the addition of organic matter (B1) results in the difference in the response of the observed variables getting smaller in the four soil types
The addition of organic matter is more responded to by sunflower plants in Podsolic and Andosol soils, compared to Hydromorphic and Alluvial soils. The difference in response given by sunflower plants in Podsolik Merah Putih and Andosol soils compared to the other two types of soil is thought to be due to differences in soil fertility problems, especially the problem of pH, availability of phosphorus, and micro-nutrient problems. In FMD and Andosol soils the pH was lower, the availability of P nutrients was lower and more frequent Al and micro nutrient poisoning (Uehara and Gilmann, 1981) than in Alluvial and Hydromorphic soils.

Growth and Production of Sunflower Plants

Growth and Production of Sunflower Plants
Different types of soil have different characteristics and characteristics and the characteristics of this soil will be responded to by cultivated plants. The naming of the type of soil is related to its characteristics, including the level of fertility. Various soil properties can affect the growth rate and soil productivity. The various properties possessed by the land also determine the response of plants to various inputs (management) which are carried out such as fertilization and liming (Khin Myint Mar Journals, 2019). Soils with medium texture provide favorable conditions for root development, water and air availability. Colloidal soils (clay and organic) with a high CEC will provide sufficient nutrients and can receive enough fertilizer to supply the plant’s nutrient needs. Soils that are already sufficiently developed and are old, generally have low pH and have a low colloidal clay with a low CEC and have a high retention of P elements. P is very high.
The availability of nutrients in such lands is generally low and plants often experience nutrient deficiencies. On such soil the efficiency of fertilizer is generally low. In this soil the presence of organic material is needed (Soepardi, 1983).
The addition of organic matter, in most types of soil, especially in soils with low organic matter content, will change the properties of soils that do not support plant growth in a better direction. The presence of organic matter in finely textured soils increases soil aggregation, so that porosity and aeration get better. In sandy textured soil the addition of organic matter increases the holding capacity of the soil to water, so that there is enough water in the dry season and increases the holding capacity of nutrients, especially nutrients from fertilizers so it is not easily leached (Sanchez, 1982).
In acid soils, organic matter increases the activity of microorganisms, so that positively charged materials, especially heavy metals will form a chelate, so P fertilizer is given and P is fixed. In this soil organic matter also increases soil pH, soil CEC, soil capacity to retain water, and nutrient availability for plants (Uehara and Gilmann, 1981; Stevenson, 1982).
Sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important plants producing vegetable oil. Sunflower seed oil is used for making cooking oil and margarine. The seed oil contains various bioactive components that can be used as medicine and cosmetics. Therefore this commodity has the potential for agribusiness and agro-industry (Winarno, 1999).
For the development of sunflower planting, various researches on agronomic activities are needed to obtain high seed production and high seed oil. Meanwhile, according to Weiss (1983) and Kaul and Das (1986) the diameter of a sunflower is influenced by soil type, and variations in size and weight of the seeds are affected by various acts of cultivation. Therefore the response of growth and production of sunflowers to the properties and characteristics of different types of soil and the addition of organic material to these soils need to be examined.
This study aims to study (1) the growth and production of sunflower plants in several types of soil, (2) the effect of providing organic material on sunflower plants in several types of soil
The study was conducted in the Experimental Garden of the Faculty of Agriculture, St Thomas SU Catholic University, in Tanjungsari Village, Tuntung District. The study was conducted from June to November 2002.
The study used a separate plot design with three replications. The treatment of organic matter as the main plot, consists of two levels, namely without the provision of organic matter (B0) and the provision of organic material (150 g chicken manure per 10 kg of oven dry soil = B1). Top soil type of soil as planting media is subplot, consisting of four levels, namely: Andosol soil (T1), Hydromorphic soil (T2), Alluvial soil (T3), Podsolik Merah Putih (T4), which are in the classification of Soil Taxonomy respectively – including the Hapludand, Tropaquept, Tropofluvent, and Paleudult groups. Each experimental plot consisted of one polybag with one plant.
To get the type of soil according to treatment used Medan soil map (Darul et al, 1989). Then a morphological examination is needed to determine the type of soil.
The soil used as a planting medium is the topsoil at a depth of 0-20 cm. Growing media is put into polybags as much as 10 kg of oven dry. For the treatment of adding organic matter (B1), 150 g of chicken manure is added per 10 kg of oven dry soil. Then the soil and organic matter are mixed evenly and left for two weeks. The first fertilization is carried out at planting with the following dosage: 4 g Urea / 10 kg of oven dry soil, 6 g of TSP / 10 kg of oven dry soil, 4 g KCl / 10 kg of oven dry soil. The second fertilization, carried out at 4 weeks after planting, as much as 4 g Urea / 10 kg of oven dry soil.
Growth response and production variables of sunflower were observed as follows: plant height, number of leaves, girth, root dry weight, number of branches, number of flowering branches, age of flowering, age of harvest, flower diameter, dry weight of discs, total number of seeds , number of pithy seeds, total seed weight, pithy seed weight, weight per seed. Variable data were analyzed by variance at the 5% test level. To determine the level of difference between treatments, response variable data were analyzed with the smallest significant difference test at 5% level (Gomez and Gomez, 1995).